Governance Entrepreneurs as Spoilers in Nordic Defence Cooperation
The deteriorated security situation in Europe has contributed to a renewed focus on Nordic defence cooperation. Recent political statements indicate an increased interest among the Nordic states to strengthen regional security cooperation in times of peace, crisis and conflict. Nonetheless, the main obstacles preventing close integration remain in place, in particular the different strategic orientations when it comes to NATO and EU-membership among the Nordics. While this is well known among scholars, less emphasis has been on the lower-level challenges Nordic defence cooperation initiatives has met. Bureaucratic mismatches and diverging industrial interests can have an important negative impact on politically endorsed projects. Governance entrepreneurs can not only undermine a specific project, but may also contribute negatively to the larger political climate between states. This article will illustrate the argument with several cases of botched Swedish-Norwegian cooperation, with particular emphasis on the Archer artillery project. This was a politically prestigious joint procurement project which failed, with significant souring of political relations as a result.
Adelman, Kenneth L., and Norman R. Augustine. 1990. The Defense Revolution: Strategy for the Brave New World. San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies Press
Adler, Emanuel, and Michael Barnett, eds. 1998. “A framework for the study of security communities.” Cambridge Studies in International Relations (62)1: 29–66.
Adler-Nissen, Rebecca, and Ulrik Gad. 2014. “Introduction: Postimperial sovereignty games in the Nordic region.” Cooperation and Conflict (49)1: 3–32.
Andonova, Liliana. 2017. Governance Entrepreneurs: International Organizations and the Rise of Global Public-Private Partnerships. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Andreatta, Filippo. 2011. “The European Union’s international relations: a theoretical view.” In International relations and the European Union, edited by Christopher Hill and Michael Smith, 21–43. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bentzrød, Sveinung Berg. 2013a. “Forsvarssamarbeid mellom Norge og Sverige slår sprekker.” Aftenposten 18 December. https://www.aftenposten.no/norge/i/0yVB/Forsvarssamarbeid-mellom-Norge-og-Sverige-slar-sprekker
Bentzrød, Sveinung Berg. 2013b. “Tysk gigant fyrer løs mot Forsvarets lastebilkjøp.” Aftenposten 19 December. https://www.aftenposten.no/norge/i/Eory5/Tysk-gigant-fyrer-los-mot-Forsvarets-lastebilkjop
Brattberg, Erik. 2017. “Strengthening partnerships: Nordic defence collaboration amid regional security concerns.” IHS Jane's Defence Weekly.
Breitenbauch, Henrik Østergaard. 2015. “Geopolitical Geworfenheit.” Journal of Regional Security (10)2: 113–133.
Breitenbauch, Henrik Østergaard et al. 2017. “Options for Enhancing NordicBaltic Defence and Security Cooperation: An explorative study.” University of Copenhagen: Centre for Military Studies.
Browning, Christopher, and Pertti Joenniemi. 2012. “From fratricide to security community: re-theorising difference in the constitution of Nordic peace.” Journal of International Relations and Development (16)4: 483–513.
Bruun-Hansen, Haakon. 2015. “Et Forsvar i endring. Forsvarssjefens fagmilitære råd.” Norway: Norwegian Armed Forces.
Dahl, Ann-Sofie. 2014. “NORDEFCO and NATO: ‘Smart Defence’ in the North?” Rome: Research Division, NATO Defense College.
de Larrinaga, Nicholas. 2016. “Sweden to double Archer artillery purchase.” IHS Jane's Defence Weekly, 21 September.
Deutsch, Karl Wolfgang. 1957. Political Community and the North Atlantic Area. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
De Vore, Marc. 2012. “Organizing international armaments cooperation: institutional design and path dependencies in Europe.” European Security (21)3: 432–458.
Defence News. 2016. “Kongsberg Buy-In at Patria Creates Nordic Industry Force.” 17 March. https://www.defensenews.com/industry/2016/03/17/kongsberg-buy-in-at-patria-creates-nordic-industry-force/.
Ege, Rune Thomas. 2015. “Vil Norge og Sverige skal samarbeide om droner og Afrika-operasjoner.” VG, 10 November. https://www.vg.no/nyheter/utenriks/i/49jro/sveriges-nye-forsvarssjef-i-eksklusivt-vg-intervju-vil-norge-og-sverige-skal-samarbeide-om-droner-og-afrika-operasjoner.
Eriksson, Mats. 2013. ”Norge bryter svenskt vapenkontrakt.” Sveriges Radio, 6 December. https://sverigesradio.se/sida/artikel.aspx?programid=83&artikel=5726468.
Friis, Karsten, and Bredesen Maren Garberg. 2017. “Swedish–Norwegian Defence Cooperation: New opportunities?” NUPI Policy Brief 7. Oslo: Norwegian Institute of International Affairs.
Forsberg, Tuomas. 2013. “The rise of Nordic defence cooperation: a return to regionalism?” International Affairs (89)5: 1161–1181.
Gebhard, Carmen. 2017. “Scandinavian Defence and Alliance Policies: Different together.” In Routledge Handbook on Scandinavian Politics, edited by Anders Wivel and Peter Nedergaard. London: Routledge.
Giegerich, Bastian, and Alexander Nicoll. 2012. “The struggle for value in European defence.” Survival (54)1: 53–82.
Haas, Ernst Bernard. 1964. Beyond the Nation-State. Functionalism and International Organisations. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Hagelin, Björn. 2006. “Hardware politics, ‘hard politics’ or ‘where, politics?’: Nordic defence equipment cooperation in the EU context.” In The Nordic Countries and the European Security and Defence Policy, edited by Alyson J.K. Bailes, Gunilla Herolf and Bengt Sundelius. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harris, Gardiner. 2016. “Obama warms up to Nordic leaders.” New York Times, 13 May. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/14/world/europe/obama-warms-to-nordic-heads-of-state.html.
Innset, Bjørn. 2010. “Integrasjon med grenser eller grenseløs integrasjon? En analyse av nordisk forsvarssamarbeid.” Sikkerhetspolitisk Bibliotek 3-2010. Oslo: The Norwegian Atlantic Committee.
Lehtonen, Juha-Matti, and Henry Isojärvi. 2015. “Nordic Armaments Co-operation Savings Potential.” Journal of Military Studies (6)2: 1–28.
Lundqvist, Stefan, and Jerker Widen. 2016. “Swedish–Finnish naval cooperation in the Baltic Sea: motives, prospects and challenges.” Defence Studies (16)4: 346–373.
March, James G., and Johan P. Olsen. 1998. “The Institutional Dynamics of International Political Orders.” International Organisation (52)4: 943–969.
Markusen, Ann. 2003. “Fuzzy concepts, scanty evidence, policy distance: the case for rigour and policy relevance in critical regional studies.” Regional studies (37)6–7: 701–717.
Moravcsik, Andrew. 1999. “A New Statecraft? Supranational Entrepreneurs and International Cooperation.” International Organisation (53)2: 267–306.
NATO News. 2015. “Secretary General stresses value of Nordic Defence Cooperation in visit to Sweden.” 10 November. http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/news_124506.htm
Neumann, Iver. 1993. “A Region-Building Approach to Northern Europe.” Review of International Studies (20)1: 53–74.
Neumann, Iver, and Henrikki Heikka. 2005. “Grand Strategy, Strategic Culture, Practice:
The Social Roots of Nordic Defence.” Cooperation and Conflict (40)1: 5–23
NORDEFCO. 2018. “Nordic Defence Cooperation Vision 2025.” Statement by the Nordic Defence Ministers. 13 November. https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/5aa571d66a1b4a708ae5fdedf8db5b83/nordefco-vision-2025.pdf .
Norwegian Ministry of Defence. 2012. “Et forsvar for vår tid.” Proposisjon til Stortinget 73 S (2011–2012). March 23. https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/e6b0d7ef3c26457ab6ef177cd75b5d32/no/pdfs/prp201120120073000dddpdfs.pdf.
Norwegian Ministry of Defence. 2013a. “Nordisk forsvarssamarbeid gir gode resultater.” News, 15 March. https://www.regjeringen.no/no/aktuelt/nordisk-forsvarssamarbeid-gir-gode-resul/id717886/.
Norwegian Ministry of Defence. 2013b. “Signerte samarbeidsavtale om transportfly.” News, 4 December. https://www.regjeringen.no/no/aktuelt/signerte-samarbeidsavtale-om-transportfl/id747330/.
Norwegian Ministry of Defence. 2016. “Strategic partners for Norway’s future submarines.” Press Release, 07 April. https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/strategic-partners-for-norways-future-submarines/id2482241/
Norwegian Parliament. 2017. “Svar på spørsmål om status for rapporten om nordisk samarbeid om utenriks- og sikkerhetspolitikk”. Question time, 01 March. Norway: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. https://www.regjeringen.no/no/aktuelt/nordisk-sikkerhet/id2540816/.
Ojanen, Hanna. 2006. “The EU and NATO: two competing models for a common defence policy.” JCMS: journal of common market studies (44)1: 57–76.
Olsson, Per, and Peter Nordlund. 2017. “Effektiv materielförsörjning - Nordiska länders strategi, organisation och försvarsindustri.” Report. Swedish Defence Research Agency. https://www.foi.se/rapportsammanfattning?reportNo=FOI-R--4452--SE.
Orvik, Nils. 1974. “Nordic Cooperation and High Politics.” International Organization (28)1: 61–88.
Pouliot, Vincent. 2010. International Security in Practice. The Politics of NATO–Russia Diplomacy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sandholtz, Wayne and Alec Stone Sweet. 2012. “Neo-Functionalism and Supranational Governance.” In The Oxford Handbook of the European Union, edited by Eric Jones, Anand Menon and Stephen Weatherill. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Saxi, Håkon Lunde. 2011. “Nordic Defence Cooperation after the Cold War.” Oslo Files on Defence and Security, March. Oslo: Norwegian Institute of Defence Studies.
Saxi, Håkon Lunde. 2016. "Hvordan revitalisere NORDEFCO? En statusrapport og noen konkrete tiltak for å styrke samarbeidet i hverdagen." In Nordisk Forsvarssamarbejde 2016: Vilkår og muligheder, edited by Mikkel Storm Jensen, 61–92. Copenhagen: Forsvarsakademiet.
Saxi, Håkon Lunde, and Karsten Friis. 2018. “After Crimea: The future of Nordic Defence Cooperation.” NUPI Policy Brief, no. 6. Oslo: NUPI/IFS.
Schmitter, Philippe C. 2004. “Neo-Neofunctionalism.” In European Integration Theory, edited by Antje Wiener and Thomas Diez, 45–75. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp..
Schmitter, Philippe C. 2005. “Ernst B. Haas and the legacy of neofunctionalism.”
Journal of European Public Policy (12)2: 255–272.
Schmitter, Philippe C., and Zoe Lefkofridi. 2016. “Neo-Functionalism as a Theory of Disintegration.” Chinese Political Science Review (1): 1–29.
Stoltenberg, Thorvald. 2009. “Nordisk samarbeid om utenriks- og sikkerhetspolitikk.” Report.
Norway: Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. February.
Stortinget.no. 2011. “Gledelig nordisk solidaritetserklæring.” Stortinget Press Archive. 06 April. https://stortinget.no/no/Hva-skjer-pa-Stortinget/Nyhetsarkiv/Hva-skjer-nyheter/2010-2011/Gledelig-nordisk-solidaritetserklaring/.
Søreide, Ine Eriksen et al. 2015. “Taking steps towards enhancing the cooperation on defence.” Editorial/statement, 17 April. Oslo: Norwegian Ministry of Defence. https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/vi-utdyper-det-nordiske-forsvarssamarbeidet/id2404378/.
Thompson, Alexander, and Daniel Verdier. 2014. “Multilateralism, Bilateralism, and Regime Design.” International Studies Quarterly (58)1: 15–28.
Undén, Pernille. 2014. ”Nordiskt Försvarsmaterielsamarbete från ett aktörperspektiv.” Master’s thesis. Stockholm: Swedish National Defence College. http://fhs.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A730540&dswid=5734
Westberg, Jacob. 2015. ”Der nordiska försvarssamarbetets drivkrafter og utvecklingsmåojligheter.” In Svänsk säkerhetspolitik i Europa och världen, edited by Kjell Engelbrekt, Arita Holberg and Jan Ångström, 89–116. Stockholm: Norstedts juridik.
Wæver, Ole. 1998. “Insecurity, Security and Asecurity in the West-European Non-War Community.” In Security Communities, edited by Emanuel Adler and Michael Barnett, 69-118. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Authors retain copyright of the published papers and grant to the publisher the non-exclusive right to publish the article, to be cited as its original publisher in case of reuse, and to distribute it in all forms and media.
The published articles will be distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY). It is allowed to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and remix, transform, and build upon it for any purpose, even commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given to the original author(s), a link to the license is provided and it is indicated if changes were made. / The published articles will be distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-SA). It is allowed to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and remix, transform, and build upon it for any purpose, even commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given to the original author(s), a link to the license is provided, it is indicated if changes were made and the new work is distributed under the same license as the original.
Users are required to provide full bibliographic description of the original publication (authors, article title, journal title, volume, issue, pages), as well as its DOI code. In electronic publishing, users are also required to link the content with both the original article published in Journal of Regional Security and the licence used.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted to deposit author’s pre-print / author’s post-print (accepted version) / publisher's version (PDF) of their work in an institutional repository, subject-based repository, author's personal website (including social networking sites, such as ResearchGate, Academia.edu, etc.), and/or departmental website prior or during the submission process / at any time after the acceptance of the manuscript / at any time after publication.
Full bibliographic information (authors, article title, journal title, volume, issue, pages) about the original publication must be provided and links must be made to the article's DOI and the license.